Abstract: A Proposed Atomic Structure of Particles
Based on the book Decoding the Periodic Table
For the past 100 years countless efforts by physicists to find a theory of atomic structure that would explain all of the interactions between chemicals as well as their transformations into other forms have failed. What this continuing failure means is that somehow, somewhere something must be drastically wrong with the method and/or the ground rules that are being deployed to attack the problem.
A. In this theory the make-up of the Periodic Table is the basis for all that is physics-related, such as the actual atomic structure of particles like the neutron, proton, electron and neutrino.
The Periodic Table’s series of element quantities shows a quadratic relationship:
|Period 1, from Hydrogen to Helium,||has 2, or 2×12 elements.|
|Period 2, from Helium to Neon,||has 8, or 2×22 elements.|
|Period 3, from Neon to Argon,||has 8, or 2×22 elements.|
|Period 4, from Argon to Krypton,||has 18, or 2×32 elements.|
|Period 5, from Krypton to Xenon,||has 18, or 2×32 elements.|
|Period 6, from Xenon to Radon,||has 32, or 2×42 elements.|
|Period 7, from Radon to ‘ZZZ’ ???,||has 32, or 2×42 elements.|
In support of the above: There is a 90° angle between the electric and magnetic components of an electromagnetic wave, such as light.
These quadratic expressions mean that there actually might be particles with square structures and straight lines, but no spheres or curved blobs, nor those wiggly rings of the string theory. This straight line idea could possibly be applied to the atomic structure and to the subatomic structures which are so intensely studied by particle physicists. Why not? Everything else has failed.
B. This is a Theory of Architectural Design of which the basic building block is a square that serves as the common base for 2 pyramids with 45° slopes, one above and one below it. Those pyramids consist of an assembly of small cubes which represent a force that is perpendicular to one of the cube’s sides. The cubes’ forces at each of the double pyramid’s four sides point in four different directions – North, South, East and West – as an easy marker (and no, it does not mean magnetism, just direction). These cubes are connected to each other at their corners, and are separated by vacant cubic spaces. The overall effect of such a double pyramid assembly of forces equals zero, as seen in Fig. 1 below.
Fig. 1: Double pyramid viewed from above; arrows represent forces
C. The next step is to put the square base of one of those double pyramids down in a “horizontal” position, as in Fig. 2 below, and then make a “plus” sign by attaching in a horizontal manner an identical double pyramid square to its North, East, South and West side, as shown in Fig. 3 below.
Fig. 2: The centrally located double pyramid
Fig. 3: Arrangement of the five double pyramids
Next: Fold the plus sign’s North and West attached double pyramids UPWARD until their sloped sides come to rest on the original center pyramid’s, and then do the same at the center pyramid’s Southeast corner, by folding those double pyramids DOWNWARD, as suggested in Fig. 4 below.
Fig. 4: Two double pyramids fold upward & the other two fold downward
We now have created a NEUTRON, as shown in Fig. 5 below.
Fig. 5: The resulting atomic structure of a Neutron
D. A free neutron will fall apart in 15 minutes into a proton and electron which both will lose part of their structure to make a particle called a neutrino. The forces of the small cubes within these particles are intrinsic, and, subject to the location of those cubes within the overall structure they are in, they will be observed as being gravity, strong force, weak force or magnetism. It all fits, including being neutral, positive or negative, quarks, and the generation of nuclear mass which involved Newton’s Third Law about action/reaction forces.
Fig. 6: Force lines & others, with their final position in the Proton (by color)
In Fig. 6 above, the final location of some of the original force lines and edges of the double pyramids has been made more evident by using color coding.
E. For this theory, because of its actual involvement of what its particles’ atomic structure might look like, it became useful to convert their measured nuclear mass into a system of which its electron’s nuclear mass would be 1.0000.
Measured Nuclear Mass Converted Nuclear Mass
|Electron 0.5110 MeV||Electron 1.0000 MeV|
|Neutron 939.5732 MeV||Neutron 1838.6949 MeV|
|Proton 938.2792 MeV||Proton 1836.1636 MeV|
Having tried for many years to find a nice and clean nuclear mass structure that would make sense inside a pyramid shape, the answer came when I tried a cubic volume for the neutron’s converted nuclear mass of 1838.6949, and found 12.253 = 1838.2656, nearly a perfect hit. However: 12.25 = (31/2)2, which changes 12.253 to (31/2)6, = 1838.2656 (mass). Using that number as the standard value as it relates to the other particles:
The proton’s new [converted] mass = 1835.7344 MeV.
The electron’s new measured mass = 0.5111198 MeV.
The interesting thing is that the fractional portion of the neutron’s mass of 1838.2656 dovetails exactly with the proton’s mass of 1835.7344, so that their combination is:
1838.2656 + 1835.7344 = 3674.0000
Helium’s mass is then twice that, or 7348.0000. This ‘clean’ whole number is ideal for Helium, which is the building block for the entire Periodic Table.
This perfect dovetailing reminds one of biology’s double helix where fulfillment is achieved when Group A merges with Group T and Group C merges with Group G.
The neutron’s mass number (31/2)6 equals (31/2)3 x (31/2)3, which means there are two identical opposing cubes packed with forces which are complying with Newton’s Third Law: Action = Reaction.
F. Additional Comments:
- This theory has no concentric spheres, but it has cubes, which for the complete Periodic Table are stacked in two layers of 3×3 = 9 cubes, for a total of 18 cubes. The total assembly has 75 cube squares, each of which is suitable to receive the square double pyramid base of Helium, with their 45 degree pyramid slopes perfectly merging with their neighbors.
- This compact assembly starts with Period 1, Helium, and then comes Period 2 with 4 ‘Heliums’ joining in, making Neon.
- Then Period 3 with 4 more ‘Heliums’ comes in, making Argon by completing a cube above and also a cube below the original Helium, for a total of 9 ‘Heliums’, with its 18 protons, making Argon’s 18 elements.
- This Argon structure is like a pod, and it is the major sub-assembly that nature will use again to make Krypton, Xenon and Radon.
- The 14-unit Lanthanum & Actinium groups serve as upper & lower covers for the whole assembly. See the Structural Periodic Table in Fig. 7 below.
Fig. 7: A look at the “Structural” vs. the “Chemical” Periodic Table
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