**Abstract: A Proposed Atomic Structure of Particles**

Based on the book **Decoding the Periodic Table**

For the past 100 years countless efforts by physicists to find a theory of atomic structure that would explain all of the interactions between chemicals as well as their transformations into other forms have failed**. ** What this continuing failure means is that somehow**,** somewhere something must be drastically wrong with the method and/or the ground rules that are being deployed to attack the problem**.**

**A. ** In this theory the make-up of the Periodic Table is the basis for all that is physics-related**,** such as the actual atomic structure of particles like the neutron**,** proton**,** electron and neutrino**.**

The Periodic Table’s series of element quantities shows a **quadratic** relationship**:**

Period 1, from Hydrogen to Helium, |
has 2, or 2×1^{2}^{ }elements. |

Period 2, from Helium to Neon, |
has 8, or 2×2^{2}^{ }elements. |

Period 3, from Neon to Argon, |
has 8, or 2×2^{2}^{ }elements. |

Period 4, from Argon to Krypton, |
has 18, or 2×3^{2}^{ }elements. |

Period 5, from Krypton to Xenon, |
has 18, or 2×3^{2}^{ }elements. |

Period 6, from Xenon to Radon, |
has 32, or 2×4^{2}^{ }elements. |

Period 7, from Radon to ‘ZZZ’ ???, |
has 32, or 2×4^{2}^{ }elements. |

In support of the above: There is a 90° angle between the electric and magnetic components of an electromagnetic wave**,** such as light**.**

These quadratic expressions mean that there actually might be particles with **square structures and straight lines,** but no spheres or curved blobs**,** nor those wiggly rings of the string theory**. ** This straight line idea could possibly be applied to the atomic structure and to the subatomic structures which are so intensely studied by particle physicists**. ** Why not? Everything else has failed**.**

**B. ** This is a Theory of Architectural Design of which the basic building block is a square that serves as the common base for 2 pyramids with 45° slopes, one above and one below it**.** Those pyramids consist of an assembly of small cubes which represent a force that is perpendicular to one of the cube’s sides**.** The cubes’ forces at each of the double pyramid’s four sides point in four different directions – North**,** South, East and West – as an easy marker (and no**,** it does not mean magnetism**,** just direction). These cubes are connected to each other at their corners**,** and are separated by vacant cubic spaces**. ** The overall effect of such a double pyramid assembly of forces equals zero**, as seen in Fig. 1 below.**

*Fig. 1: Double pyramid viewed from above; arrows represent forces*

**C. ** The next step is to put the square base of one of those double pyramids down in a “horizontal” position**,** **as in Fig. 2 below,** and then make a “plus” sign by attaching in a horizontal manner an identical double pyramid square to its North**,** East**,** South and West side**, as shown in Fig. 3 below.**

**Fig. 2: The centrally located double pyramid**

**Fig. 3: Arrangement of the five double pyramids**

Next: Fold the plus sign’s North and West attached double pyramids UPWARD until their sloped sides come to rest on the original center pyramid’s**,** and then do the same at the center pyramid’s Southeast corner**,** by folding those double pyramids DOWNWARD**, as suggested in Fig. 4 below.**

**Fig. 4: Two double pyramids fold upward & the other two fold downward**

We now have created a NEUTRON**,** **as shown in Fig. 5 below.**

**Fig. 5: The resulting atomic structure of a Neutron**

**D.** A free neutron will fall apart in 15 minutes into a proton and electron which both will lose part of their structure to make a particle called a neutrino**.** The forces of the small cubes within these particles are intrinsic**,** and**,** subject to the location of those cubes within the overall structure they are in**,** they will be observed as being gravity**,** strong force**,** weak force or magnetism**. ** It all fits**,** including being neutral**,** positive or negative**,** quarks**,** and the generation of nuclear mass which involved **Newton’s Third Law** about action/reaction forces**.**

**Fig. 6: Force lines & others, with their final position in the Proton (by color)**

**In Fig. 6 above,** the final location of some of the original force lines and edges of the double pyramids has been made more evident by using color coding.

**E. ** For this theory**,** because of its actual involvement of what its particles’ atomic structure might look like**,** it became useful to convert their measured nuclear mass into a system of which its electron’s nuclear mass would be 1**.**0000**.**

Measured Nuclear Mass Converted Nuclear Mass

Electron 0.5110 MeV | Electron 1.0000 MeV |

Neutron 939.5732 MeV | Neutron 1838.6949 MeV |

Proton 938.2792 MeV | Proton 1836.1636 MeV |

Having tried for many years to find a nice and clean nuclear mass structure that would make sense inside a pyramid shape**,** the answer came when I tried a cubic volume for the neutron’s converted nuclear mass of 1838**.**6949**,** and found 12**.**25^{3} = 1838**.**2656**,** nearly a perfect hit**. ** However: 12**.**25 = (3^{1}/_{2})^{2}**,** which changes 12**.**25^{3} to (3^{1}/_{2})^{6}**,** = 1838**.**2656 (mass)**. ** Using that number as the standard value as it relates to the other particles:

The proton’s new [converted] mass = 1835**.**7344 MeV**.**

The electron’s new measured mass = 0**.**5111198 MeV**.**

The interesting thing is that the fractional portion of the neutron’s mass of 1838**.**2656 dovetails exactly with the proton’s mass of 1835**.**7344, so that their combination is:

1838**.**2656 + 1835**.**7344 = 3674**.**0000

Helium’s mass is then twice that**,** or 7348**.**0000**.** This ‘clean’ whole number is ideal for Helium**,** which is the building block for the entire Periodic Table**.**

This perfect dovetailing reminds one of biology’s double helix where fulfillment is achieved when Group A merges with Group T and Group C merges with Group G**.**

The neutron’s mass number (3^{1}/_{2})^{6} equals (3^{1}/_{2})^{3} x (3^{1}/_{2})^{3}**,** which means there are two identical opposing cubes packed with forces which are complying with **Newton’s Third Law: Action = Reaction.**

**Fig. Newton**

**F.** Additional Comments:

- This theory has no concentric spheres
**,**but it has cubes**,**which for the complete Periodic Table are stacked in two layers of 3×3 = 9 cubes**,**for a total of 18 cubes**.**The total assembly has 75 cube squares**,**each of which is suitable to receive the square double pyramid base of Helium**,**with their 45 degree pyramid slopes perfectly merging with their neighbors**.**

- This compact assembly starts with Period 1
**,**Helium**,**and then comes Period 2 with 4 ‘Heliums’ joining in**,**making Neon**.**

- Then Period 3 with 4 more ‘Heliums’ comes in
**,**making Argon by completing a cube above and also a cube below the original Helium**,**for a total of 9 ‘Heliums’**,**with its 18 protons**,**making Argon’s 18 elements.

- This Argon structure is like a pod
**,**and it is the major sub-assembly that nature will use again to make Krypton**,**Xenon and Radon**.**

- The 14-unit Lanthanum & Actinium groups serve as upper & lower covers for the whole assembly.
**See the Structural Periodic Table in Fig. 7 below.**

**Fig. 7: A look at the “Structural” vs. the “Chemical” Periodic Table**

Also, be sure to check out our other site for more about this subject:

I never knew anyone else knew about the pyramid till tonight. I have been working on it for 23 years now and I would like to share what I have found with you. My Protactinium model contains 6 pyramids that have the same atomic number and atomic weight as found on the chemical element table. I have an album called Atomic pyramid structure that shows the chemical elements and how they are arranged. I have not found all the chemical elements inside the pyramid but I do believe they are all there. If you find my model interesting, let me know.